People of Canada - People of British Columbia
Einwanderung im Westen Kanadas

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5 Anhang

5.1 Internationale Vergleiche

                          Einheiten    Canada      USA  Frankr.  Ital.     GB      BRD    Japan  Mexico
Fläche                    in 1000km²   9976     9372     549     301     244     357      377    1973  
Bevölkerung               in 1000km²  28753   257908   57667   57070   57830   81190   124670   91210  
        Wachstum 1992/93           %      1,1      1,1     0,5     0,0    -0,3     0,8      0,0     1,9
           Dichte          Einw./km²      2,9     27,5   105,0   189,5   236,2   227,5    330,0    46,2
Kindersterblichkeit                ‰      6,8      8,5     6,5     7,3     6,6     5,8      4,5    18,0
Lebenserwartung               Männer     74,9     72,3    73,3    74,5    73,6    72,9     76,3    68,6
                              Frauen     81,2     79,1    81,5    80,9    79,0    79,4     82,5    74,6
PIB                          Mdr US$    546,3   6259,9  1251,7   991,4   941,1  1910,8   4214,1   361,9
                         US$/Pers./a  19001    24302   21706   17371   16279   23537     33802   3968  
Zuwachs PIB 83-93                  %      2,6      2,8     1,9     2,2     2,2     2,8      3,7     2,0
Wirtschftssektoren  Landwirtschaft %      2,4      2,0     2,3     2,9     1,6     1,2      2,2     6,8
       Anteil am PIB     Industrie %    28,1      27,0    27,8    31,5    28,7    36,6     41,1    28,7
                           Service %     69,4     71,1    69,8    65,6    69,8    62,3     56,7    64,6
Aktive                       in 1000  13946   129525   25213   22787   28179   38682    66150   32383  
Beschäftigte                 in 1000  12309   119306   21781   20152   25044   34802    64500   31342  
Arbeitslosenrate                   %     11,2      6,7    11,6    10,8    10,2     8,8      2,5     3,2
Beschäftigung Frauen               %     65,3     69,1    59,0    46,5    64,8    61,3     61,7      - 
Energieverbrauch  Mio   t Erdöleinh.    169,1   1401,5   152,2   121,56  151,9   241,37   316,4   101,4
Energieproduktion  Mio   t Erdöleinh.   315,1   1616,7   118,5    28,68  219,7   149,36    83,9   203,6
Ausgaben Gesundheit        % vom PIB     10,2     14,1     9,8     8,5     7,1     8,6      7,3     4,9
Ausgaben Bildung           % vom PIB      7,1      5,3     5,5     5,1     5,1     4,1      3,6      - 
Importe                      Mdr US$    130,4    601,1   209,6   153     221,6   341,1    231        - 
Exporte                      Mdr US$    135,2    430,2   215,8   178,9   190,1   379,4    339,5      - 
	

Tabelle 15: Internationale Vergleiche
Quelle: L'Observateur de l'OCDE

5.2 Canadian Social Trends Spring 1996

	     1988       1989       1990       1991       1992       1993       1994       1995
POPULATION                                                                             
Canada, July 1 (000s)
 26,894.8   27,379.3   27,790.6   28,120.1   28,542.2   28,947.0   29,251.3   29,606.1
Annual Growth (%)
      1.3        1.8        1.5        1.2        1.5        1.4        1.1        1.2
Immigration
  152,413    178,152    202,979    219,250    241,810    265,405    227,860    215,652
Emmigration
   40,978     40,395     39,760     43,692     45,633     43,993     44,807     45,949

     1988       1989       1990       1991       1992       1993       1994       1995
FAMILY                                                                                
Birth rate (per 1,000)
     14.5       15.0       15.3       14.3       14.0       13.4          -          -
Marriage rate (per 1,000)
      7.0        7.0        6.8        6.1        5.8        5.5          -          -
Divorce rate (per 1,000)
      3.1        3.0        2.8        2.7        2.8        2.7          -          -
Families experiencing unemployment (000s)
        -        808        879      1,096      1,184      1,198      1,130          -

     1988       1989       1990       1991       1992       1993       1994       1995
LABOUR FORCE                                                                          
Total employment (000s)
   12,819     13,086     13,165     12,916     12,842     13,015     13,292     13,506
employment goods sector (000s)
    3,873      3,928      3,809      3,582      3,457      3,448      3,545      3,653
employment service sector (000s)
    8,946      9,158      9,356      9,334      9,385      9,567      9,746      9,852
Total unemployment (000s)
    1,082      1,065      1,164      1,492      1,640      1,649      1,541      1,422
Unemployment rate (%)
      7.8        7.5        8.1       10.4       11.3       11.2       10.4        9.5
Part-time employment (%)
     15.2       15.0       15.3       16.3       16.7       17.2       17.0       16.6
Women's participation rate (%)
     57.7       58.3       58.7       58.5       58.0       57.9       57.6       57.4

     1988       1989       1990       1991       1992       1993       1994       1995
INCOME                                                                                
Median family income
   40,904     43,995     45,618     46,389     47,199     46,717     48,091          -
% of families with low incomes (1992 Base)
     12.2       11.1       12.3       13.0       13.5       14.6       13.5          -
Woman's full-time earnings as a % of men's
     65.4       66.0       67.7       69.6       71.9       72.2       69.8          -

     1988       1989       1990       1991       1992       1993       1994       1995
CRIME                                                                                 
Crime rates (per 100,000) - violent
      865        908        970      1,056      1,077      1,072      1,037          -
Crime rates (per 100,000) - property
    5,419      5,271      5,593      6,141      5,868      5,525      5,214          -
Crime rates (per 100,000) - - homicide
      2.1        2.4        2.4        2.7        2.6        2.2        2.0          -

     1988       1989       1990       1991       1992       1993       1994       1995
ECONOMIC INDICATORS                                                                   
GDP (1986 $) - annual % change
     +5.0       +2.4       -0.2       -1.8       +0.6       +2.2       +4.5          -
Annual inflation rate (%)
      4.0        5.0        4.8        5.6        1.5        1.8        0.2        2.1
	

Tabelle 16: Jahresindikatoren
Quelle: CST, Internet: http://dsp-psd.tpsgc.gc.ca/

5.3 Die Besiedlung British Columbias nach Nationalitäten (engl.)

Quelle: The Pacific Cultural Services Ltd. (Internet)

British Columbia's coat of arms bears the motto "Splendor sine Occasu", which means "Splendour without Diminishment". British Columbia's 948,600 square kilometres of splendour include spectacular mountain ranges, majestic fiords, arid plateaus, fertile river valleys, dense rain forests, 6,500 islands and 7,022 kilometres of rugged coastline.

Among British Columbia's most important industries are forestry, mining, fishing and agriculture. People from many cultures have participated in the building of this province. Thousands more choose it as their home each year. For more than a century, this province and its resources have attracted hardy adventurers, shrewd entrepreneurs and pioneers in every field of endeavour. For generations before that, the tribal groups of British Columbia's native people lived close to the earth, carving a self-sufficient, richly complex culture from forest, stone and sea. Today, the people of B.C. are as varied as its terrain. Some of us were born here; others chose to come from homelands around the world.

The first explorers and fur traders to arrive on the west coast of what is now British Columbia came from Spain, England, Russia, America, France and Scotland. Some arrived in sailing ships; some - like explorers Simon Fraser, Alexander Mackenzie and David Thompson - came in great canoes crewed by French-Canadian voyageurs. Some reaped profits from resources and moved on; others stayed. As chains of fur forts established by men of the North West and Hudson's Bay companies opened up the west, frontier marriages joined Indian women with Scottish and English traders and French voyageurs. Then, in l827, trader James McMillan and his British, Scottish, French and Iroquois crew brought Canada's first Oriental immigrants - the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islanders - to British Columbia's Fraser Valley. The 'Kanakas", as they were called, worked beside expert French-Canadian axemen, clearing land and hewing timbers for Fort Langley. They, too, married into native families.

As colonies grew around the forts on the mainland and Vancouver Island, industrious and enterprising traders and settlers found ways to be self-sufficient and self-supporting. By the 1850's, B.C.'s fishing, mining, agriculture and lumbering industries had already begun. Fish caught by native fishermen were preserved, packed and shipped to overseas markets from Fort Langley; coal was mined on Vancouver Island; lumber was cut at the first sawmill in Victoria; and crops and dairy produce from Hudson's Bay Company farms at Colwood, Craigflower and Langley supplied both local and overseas markets. Soon settlers from the east were attracted to the developing western frontier. By l857, French and French-Canadian missionaries, farmers, miners and merchants formed the largest ethnic group settled in the inland areas of the province.

Then gold was discovered on the Fraser River. Over 20,000 newcomers poured across the border. Almost overnight, British Columbia's multicultural landscape changed dramatically. This heavy influx of high-spirited gold-seekers from the United States led Britain to assert its claim formally to the Pacific mainland north of the 49th Parallel by declaring the territory a Crown Colony. On December l9, l858, James Douglas was sworn in at Fort Langley as Governor of 'British Columbia'. The Gold Rush attracted not only miners and prospectors, but also men who could provide supplies and services. German, Austrian, Swiss, Italian and Scandinavian entrepreneurs were among those who headed north. Cattle ranches were established in the Cariboo and the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys to serve the needs of the mining communities. The first fruit trees in the Okanagan were planted by an Austrian rancher and an Oblate priest from Bohemia, Brother Pandosy, who founded the first permanent non-native settlement in the valley in l859.

The Chinese came in great numbers. At the peak of the Gold Rush, there were 5,000 Chinese in Barkerville alone. When the Rush was over, they moved to other B.C. centres, like Victoria, where communities were already established. Blacks from the San Francisco area were drawn to the Crown Colony of Vancouver Island, where rural land sold for 20 shillings an acre and town lots for $50.00. After nine months, black settlers could vote, be jurors and be protected by the law - rights denied to them at that time in the state of California. Some opened businesses in Victoria; others settled on farms on nearby Saltspring Island.

Jewish immigrants arrived from the U.S. and western Europe to establish a small but thriving community in Victoria. In l863, they built a synagogue that is still in use today. German merchants and businessmen settled in Victoria, too, and later in Vancouver, where a community had begun to grow around Hastings Mills.

As the Canadian Pacific Railway moved west in the l880's, American contractor Andrew Onderdonk brought l5,700 Chinese to B.C. to work as labourers. The railway also employed Scandinavian, Frenchmen, Irishmen, Ukrainians, Lebanese, Poles and others from eastern Europe. Many of these men were prairie farmers needing cash for provisions. Some of the Irish railway workers - skilled tradesmen known around the world as 'navvies' - stayed to settle in B.C. Other Irishmen established British Columbia's famous O'Keefe and Coldstream ranches. The Vernons of Coldstream gave their name to the town.

In the late nineteenth century, Scandinavians settled in several rural areas of B.C.; the Norwegians and Swedes on Fraser Valley farms near Matsqui and the Danes on the Cape Scott peninsula at Holberg. Others became fishermen off the B.C. coast. The Finns who worked on the C.P.R. moved on to the coal mines of Nanaimo and Wellington and to Sointula, on Malcolm Island in Queen Charlotte Sound, where they founded their own settlement. Hungarians and Japanese came to work the fertile farmlands along the Fraser River. Some Japanese became market gardeners; others became fishermen. Immigrants from India - mainly Sikhs - found work in the logging, lumber, dairy and fruit farming industries. Doukhobors moved en masse from Saskatchewan to farms in the Slocan and Kettle Valleys. In July l909, the Fraser River Lumber Company recruited French-Canadian lumbermen, who established a settlement at Maillardville. Some later moved to Port Alberni.

Croatians came, often via the U.S., to work in construction, fishing and mining industries. Mennonites arrived from Manitoba and the eastern U.S. in the l920's and from Alberta and Saskatchewan in the '30's and early '40's. They settled on farms around Yarrow, on Sumas Prairie, and at Aldergrove, Clearbrook and Abbotsford. Hungarians and Ukrainians also migrated from the prairies to B.C. farms and cities after the Depression.

Since World War II, people from Holland, Greece, Portugal, Latvia, Estonia, Italy, India, Latin America, and other countries have come in great numbers, contributing their skills to a variety of commercial and professional enterprises. Recently, in response to political upheavals in their homelands, Hungarians, Czechs, Ugandans, Vietnamese and Poles have sought freedom in Canada. Now they are settled beside other British Columbians in communities large and small, all across our province.

Today, all of us reap the rewards of our multicultural history. B.C.'s First People, our native Indians, established our earliest traditions of conservation and wise use of resources; the first non-native founders of this province brought us British law, administration, education and social structure; and the many thousands of us who came as immigrants from every part of the world put our own cultural, religious, political, educational, social and commerical marks on our communities. We brought our strength as individuals and our skills as tradespeople, professionals, homemakers and parents.

5.4 Population by Selected Age Groups - 1994

                     (thousands)              
Age Group            Males   Females     Total
  0-4                123.0     117.2     240.2
  5-14               246.8     237.4     484.1
  15-24              249.2     243.0     492.3
  25-34              308.8     305.4     614.3
  35-44              305.3     306.0     611.3
  45-54              228.2     221.2     449.4
  55-64              158.9     154.2     313.2
  65+                201.3     262.4     463.6
                    ------    ------    ------
Total Population   1,821.6   1,846.7   3,668.4
	

Tabelle 17: Altersklassen 1994
Quelle: BC STATS 1996

5.5 Population of Selected Centres British Columbia 1994

                                       Thousands
Metropolitan Vancouver                     1,775
  Vancouver                                  509
  Surrey                                     281
  Burnaby                                    173
  Richmond                                   139
  Coquitlam                                   97
  Delta                                       96
  North Vancouver D.M.                        82
  Langley D.M.                                78
  
Metropolitan Victoria                        312
  Saanich                                    104
  Victoria                                    76

Other Centres                                   
  Kelowna                                     90
  Matsqui                                     80
  Kamloops                                    75
  Prince George                               75
  Nanaimo                                     69
  Chilliwack                                  59
	

Tabelle 18: Städtische Zentren 1994
Quelle: BC STATS 1996

6 Quellenangaben

BC Stats (Internet)
British Columbia Municipal and Regional District Estimates 1976-1981, 1976-2021, 1991-1991, 1992-1993 (www. bcstats.gov.bc.ca/data/pop/....e.htm)

Fischer (ed.)
Fischer Weltalmanach 1996, Frankfurt a.M. 1995

Frémy, Dominique & Michèle
Le Quid 1989, Éditions Robert Lafont, Paris 1988

Griffin, Kevin
Vancouver’s many faces, Whitecap Books

Hunter Brian (ed.)
The Statesman’s Yearbook 1994/1995 (131. edition), Mac Millan Press, GB 1994

Kelly Koren
Visible Minorities - A diverse group, Internet (www.statcan.ca/Documents/English/SocTrends/vismin.html), Housing, Family, and social statistics, by Statistics Canada 1995/96

Lenz Karl
Multikulturalismus in Kanada, in: Geographische Rundschau April 1996, Westermann, Braunschweig

McRae Don, Schrier Dan
An econometric model Describing the movement of the population between British Columbia and the rest of Canada, Population Section, BC Stats, Ministery of Gouvernment Services, Government of British Columbia (Intenert, PDF-file)

Meridew, Alan
Canada tightens up on sponsors, in: South China Morning Post, 17. 12. 1995

Ministère des affaires étrangeres (Internet)
Verschiedene Seiten u.a.: www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/francais/html/canada/11 c-b.html

Pryke K. G., Soderlund W. C.
Profiles of Canada, Copp Clarke Pitman, Toronto 1992

Shioya, Tara
Up and Comming: As affluent immigrants flock from Asia and Vancouver, the economy is growing, in:San Francisco Chronicle, 18. 02. 1996

Sibbald, Peter
Die Innu, Heimkehr ins Land der Väter, In GEO Spezial Feb. 1996

Statitics Canada (ed.)
Canada Yearbook 1992 = 125. Anniversary, Statistics Canada, Ottawa 1991
Canada Yearbook 1994, Satistics Canada, Ottawa 1993
Le Quotidien/Daily (Statistisch-analysierendes Tagesblatt von Statistics Canada), verschiedene Ausgaben 1994, 1995 und 1996 Internet www.statcan.ca/daily/

United Nations, Statistical Office (ed.)
Demographic Yearbook 1995, New York 1994

Way, Emily (Internet-Link)
Applying for permanent residence in Canada: A self-assesment guide for independent applicants
Internet http://www.io.org/~spamily/immigration/Selection_system.html

People of Canada - People of British Columbia
Einwanderung im Westen Kanadas

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